The Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management publishes original articles on topics relevant to studying, implementing, measuring and managing knowledge management and intellectual capital.

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Journal Article

Knowledge Management for Virtual Reality Applications in a Home Rehabilitation Virtual Network  pp477-486

Emil Scarlat, Virginia Maracine, Adriana Nica

© Jan 2008 Volume 5 Issue 4, Editor: Charles Despres, pp347 - 550

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Abstract

This paper describes the reference architecture to support a multi‑user virtual healthcare network that enables rehabilitation and social reintegration of people with disabilities. The network, based on a virtual collaborative environment supported by the www, includes collaboration and interpersonal communication devices and data collection mechanisms that provide knowledge management for the system and effectiveness evaluation. The Virtual Network (VN) allows the rehabilitation patients spread in geographically dispersed areas, a very frequent reality in the considered context, to access a distributed virtual platform able to offer communication and shared knowledge with doctors, nurses, therapists, social workers and other people involved in the process of rehabilitation. VN solutions allow building a virtual shared space, a context of understanding and knowledge where the "real world" knowledge affects virtual interaction and virtual interaction modifies "real world" therapies. The main aim of the VN is to achieve a higher quality of life for the people with disabilities and, in the long term, from the economic point of view, to produce important savingsprofits and bring about feasible ways to improvingre‑organizing health care services. The present paper illustrates our team's first steps in building such a network in Romania. The first section establishes the link between the virtual reality and the medical rehabilitation as an important branch of the healthcare system. Several applications in the field are presented here. The second section focuses on two main aspects: on the one hand, the current Romanian reality of medical rehabilitation and, on the other hand, the existing possibilities to build a VN for rehabilitation as a solution to the main problems Romania has in this field. The third section is a technical preamble to the knowledge sharing process particularized for a healthcare VN in section number four. The last part of the paper includes both pro and cons arguments for the designing of a VN as a solution to the discrepancy between the demand and the real current hospitals' supply of medical rehabilitation in Romania.

 

Keywords: home rehabilitation, virtual reality, virtual healthcare network, virtual organization, knowledge sharing models, information broker agent, personal healthcare agent

 

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Journal Article

Dynamic Knowledge and Healthcare Knowledge Ecosystems  pp99-110

Virginia Maracine, Emil Scarlat

© Apr 2009 Volume 7 Issue 1, ECKM 2008, Editor: Roy Williams, pp1 - 198

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Abstract

The concept of Knowledge Ecosystem (KE) is used to define a community of practice that builds knowledge in a bottom‑up, networked and dynamic fashion. These features define a new kind of digital ecosystem that is domain specific and operate in an open (virtual or real) world. The openness is an ideal situation that needs to apply the unified standards, for instance the Semantic Web Standards and Rules and Web 3.0 that help the building, growth, sharing and forgetting of knowledge across the Knowledge Ecosystems. What makes the KE different from the "classic" view upon the digital ecosystem is an active and dynamic process that involves: the creation of knowledge; the intentional elicitation of knowledge; the ability of share knowledge across the entities; and the possibility to depreciate and forget knowledge. How does the dynamic nature of knowledge influence the nature of knowledge ecosystems? What are the general principles that can be applied to design the sound and enduring knowledge ecosystems? These are some of the questions will try to get answers in our paper work. First of all, we will show that the dynamic evolution of knowledge and the dynamic character of the flows of knowledge are essential for the transition from digital ecosystems to knowledge ecosystems. Having a static collection of pieces of knowledge, processing them and placing them in a digital ecosystem are not really enough for this one to becomes a knowledge ecosystem. Continuous knowledge creation is responsible for transforming the digital ecosystem in a knowledge one. The process of dynamic knowledge building occurs when internal (tacit) knowledge becomes external (explicit). The continuously feedbacks that operate between internal and external knowledge are producing new knowledge among entities and create the energy and permanent innovation that characterizes a knowledge ecosystem. In the second part of the paper we have draw some general principles of accelerating the appearance of new knowledge ecosystems, while in the third section we define the main features of the knowledge healthcare ecosystem design for the home rehabilitation of people with motor disabilities. In order to do so, we are going to extract from these general principles the specific in‑rules that make the agents involved in home health rehabilitation act as a knowledge ecosystem. Alongside the theoretical approach to our paper (that refers to the principles' establishing), there is also the practical one. We conclude the paper work with some remarks on the KE's role and importance in healthcare, and in particular in home rehabilitation field.

 

Keywords: digital ecosystem, healthcare knowledge ecosystem, dynamic knowledge, flows of knowledge, home health rehabilitation, virtual network for home health rehabilitation

 

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Journal Article

Knowledge use and Sharing into a Medical Community of Practice; the Role of Virtual Agents (Knowbots)  pp64-81

Virginia Maracine, Luca Iandoli, Emil Scarlat, Adriana Sarah Nica

© Jan 2012 Volume 10 Issue 1, ECKM 2011, Editor: Franz Lehner, pp1 - 109

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Abstract

Knowledge‑oriented organizations are bricks for the knowledge‑based society construction. Building knowledge‑based society and economy suppose challenging transition processes from the classical structure of an organization to new organizational forms that help to fill the gap between actual society and the future knowledge‑based society and economy. This transition generates new issues in knowledge creation and sharing processes, related to the particularities of the new organizational forms. Therefore, in the last few years, our researches are oriented to developing and testing a number of forms of organization designed to facilitate an efficient and effective transition toward the knowledge‑based society, like communities of practice, (virtual) networks of professionals or knowledge ecosystems (KE). Under this general frame, this paper presents the results of our research aiming to capture the necessary changes that a medical organization specialized in rehabilitation (the National Institute of Rehabilitation and Physical Medicine from Bucharest, Romania ‑ INRMFB) has to undertake for converting its classical structure into a new knowledge‑oriented one, possible and easily to being integrated into a Virtual Network for Home Health Rehabilitation of the impaired people – the meta goal of our research in recent years. Specifically, within its five sections, the paper outlines: 1. An introduction in the macro and micro‑level empirical setting in which the study is carried out; 2. The methodological approach based on Social Network Analysis (SNA). Although quit often used in the medical field, as we will see in the second section of the paper, the SNA methods and models aren’t used yet in the particular area of health rehabilitation; 3. The objectives of the empirical study that can be summarized as follows: Mapping of the knowledge flows & needs in the target community of practice. The aim of this step is to produce an accurate picture of the knowledge flows that the target community identified at the INRMFB actually enacts in the accomplishment of its organizational objectives. Analysis & Diagnosis: Identification of critical aspects and areas of improvements (e.g. knowledge needs, knowledge bottlenecks, structural determinants of inefficiency or of poor performance). Design: definition of the functional specifications for redesigning the agents, network and of the functionalities of Knowbots. 4. The survey we have designed for data collection. According with the particularities of the macro and micro‑level in which our study is carried out, we have designed a survey that will help us both for diagnosing the knowledge‑sharing‑structure of INRMFB, and for finding adequate solutions for potential critical aspects identified in this medical facility.; 5. A set of conclusions and recommendations for the new knowledge‑oriented organizational structure to be created within the INRMFB. Alongside with performing SNA in the health rehabilitation field, an important output of our study is to find answer to the following questions: Cans the classical organizational structure of the INRMFB be transformed into a knowledge‑based one, by reengineering the knowledge flows and agent’s roles? If and where within the actual structure a virtual knowledge agent (knowbot) can and should be integrated? Our paper is a consequent continuation of our work in the KE area, contributing to the completion of an integrate vision over the role of the KM techniques, human and virtual agents in the emerging of knowledge‑based society. It presents a work still in progress, the final results of our study going to be presented within the ECKM2011 conference.

 

Keywords: community of practice, healthcare knowledge ecosystems, social network analysis, knowledge agent, Knowbot, collective learning, knowledge-based organization.

 

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Journal Article

Knowledge Management Practices and Healthcare Delivery: A Contingency Framework  pp110-120

Prantik Bordoloi, Nazrul Islam

© Mar 2012 Volume 10 Issue 2, ICICKM 2011, Editor: Vincent Ribière, pp110 - 207

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Abstract

Being a knowledge driven process, healthcare delivery provides opportunity to incorporate knowledge management practices to improve processes. But it has also been noted that knowledge management is systematically more complex in healthcare and minimal research exist to guide academic and organizational stakeholders. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the application and impact of knowledge management practices in healthcare delivery. The paper is conceptual in its nature and aims to propose a contingency‑based framework to drive further empirical research. The paper is primarily based on a literature review of the healthcare knowledge management and associated information sciences research streams. The fundamental research questions are: ‘‘what and how do the various knowledge management practices affect the performance of healthcare delivery?’’ and ‘‘what are the contingent and contextual factors that needs to be considered when exploring the relationship between knowledge management practices and performance of healthcare delivery?’’ We first discuss facets of performance in healthcare delivery but thereafter focus on the technical and interpersonal care aspects of healthcare delivery. We investigate knowledge management practices in the areas of (i) knowledge acquisition and sharing, (ii) knowledge assimilation and application. In our paper we explore how the different knowledge management practices affect the performance of healthcare delivery through technical and interpersonal care. Thereafter we explore the factors of physician characteristic, ailment characteristics, organizational IT infrastructure and organization processes, on which the conceptual framework will be contingent on. We thereafter evaluate the conceptual framework with a case study. From an academic perspective our paper identifies some key knowledge management practices and explores their linkages with technical and interpersonal care, while from a practical point of view it provides implications for administrators and practitioners in healthcare delivery on the management of contingency factors so that the knowledge management practices can be properly implemented.

 

Keywords: healthcare knowledge management, healthcare delivery performance, electronic medical records, clinical decision support, evidence based medicine

 

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Journal Article

Knowledge Management and the Effectiveness of Innovation Outcomes: The Role of Cultural Barriers  pp62-71

Antonio Leal-Rodríguez, Antonio Leal-Millán, José Luis Roldán-Salgueiro, Jaime Ortega-Gutiérrez

© Jan 2013 Volume 11 Issue 1, ECKM 2012, Editor: Dr Juan Gabriel Cegarra and Dr María Eugenia Sánchez, pp1 - 115

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Abstract

In this paper we propose a conceptual model to test the moderating effect of cultural barriers on the link between knowledge strategies and innovation using healthcare organizations. In order to study the tie (knowledge‑innovation) and the effects of the

 

Keywords: knowledge base, innovation outcome, cultural barriers, healthcare organizations

 

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Journal Article

Intellectual Capital and Innovation: A Case Study of a Public Healthcare organisation in Europe  pp361-372

Helena Santos-Rodrigues

© Nov 2013 Volume 11 Issue 4, ECIC 2013, Editor: Lidia Garcia Zambrano, pp280 - 392

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Abstract

Abstract: This research study focuses on innovation and the Human, Structural, and Relational components of Intellectual Capital, using Santos‑Rodrigues et al. (2011) research proposal as a framework. It aims to investigate the influence of Intellectua l Capital on a public Healthcare organisations capability for innovation. Sixty five of the sixty eight questionnaires administered to hospital managers and leaders between July and August of 2011, were used in the research. The study suggests that a rel ationship exists between the incentives to innovate (a dimension of Human Capital) and the innovation created, with trust being the only Structural Capital dimension related with the innovation adopted. It was found that networks and alliances (a dime nsion of Relational Capital), is the only dimension simultaneously related with the innovation created and adopted constructs, hence, Relational Capital being the only Intellectual Capital construct related simultaneously with both innovation creation an d adoption. The research further suggests that there is a direct relation between Human Capital and innovation, principally with the innovation created. The Structural Capital construct was found to be partly related with the Innovation Adoption construct .

 

Keywords: Keywords: Intellectual Capital, Innovativeness, Healthcare, Human Capital, Structural Capital, Relational Capital

 

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Journal Article

Intellectual Capital and BI‑tools in Private Healthcare Value Creation  pp143-154

Milla Ratia

© Sep 2018 Volume 16 Issue 2, The Management of IC and Knowledge “in action”, Editor: Dr Maria Serena Chiucchi and Dr Susanne Durst, pp73 - 186

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Abstract

The demand for data‑driven decision making in the healthcare sector has increased, not only on the clinical side, but also from the managerial perspective; this is especially true in the private healthcare sector. Utilisation of internal and external data requires certain capabilities, such as intellectual capital (IC), as different data sources (structural capital) and organisational competences (human capital) can become organisational value. We study the utilisation of business intelligence (BI) tools and IC dimensions in creating value in the Finnish private healthcare sector. IC components and a modified value creation capabilities model are used as a framework for considering data utilisation and BI tools’ role in value creation. Our study includes private healthcare organisations in Finland and management and BI technology consulting representatives. Thematic interviews of key personnel responsible for BI were conducted to elucidate the value creation capabilities, IC components and BI tool utilisation in the Finnish private healthcare industry. Data‑driven decision making is currently one of the most discussed topics in private healthcare sector organisations. By analysing the current data source utilisation and organisational competences in data utilisation, we gain a better understanding of IC and BI tool–enabled value creation in private healthcare organisations. The study’s outcomes will provide valuable information and a deep understanding concerning the influence of BI tools and IC dimensions on value creation in private health care in Finland. In addition, it will provide insight into future‑oriented value creation factors that can enable new business concepts for private healthcare companies. Advanced capability of data utilisation will increase the value creation ability in private healthcare sector companies. However, in addition to the technology and data, human capital or capability of BI tool utilisation and data‑driven decision making are crucial.

 

Keywords: Private healthcare, business intelligence, intellectual capital, value creation, external data sources

 

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Journal Article

A Know‑How and Knowing‑That Cartography for Improving knowledge Management in Medical Field  pp170-184

Sahar Ghrab, Ines Saad, Gilles Kassel, Faiez Gargouri

© Sep 2018 Volume 16 Issue 2, The Management of IC and Knowledge “in action”, Editor: Dr Maria Serena Chiucchi and Dr Susanne Durst, pp73 - 186

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Abstract

As a tool of Knowledge Management, knowledge cartography is used, in this paper, to enhance knowledge identification, sharing, representation and visualization in a healthcare organization as well as to deliver healthcare services and improve communication between healthcare professionals.The Know‑How and Knowing‑That concepts are used, in this paper, instead of the knowledge concept. Know‑How is defined as the capacity to perform an action and Knowing‑That is defined as a belief state related to a description which can be factual or prescriptive. For the construction of Know‑How and Knowing‑That cartography, a knowledge cartography methodology is proposed. It is composed of three steps: (i) identifying the concepts to visualize, (ii) identifying the graphical elements and (iii) choosing the cartography technique. This cartography is experimented in the ASHMS (Association of Protection of Motor Disabled of Sfax) to facilitate Know‑How and Knowing‑That identification, characterization and visualization.

 

Keywords: Healthcare knowledge management, knowledge identification, Know-How and Knowing-That cartography, knowledge visualization, Know-How, Knowing-That

 

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