The Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management publishes original articles on topics relevant to studying, implementing, measuring and managing knowledge management and intellectual capital.

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Journal Article

Visual Tools within MaKE — A Knowledge Management Method  pp28-36

Peter Sharp, Alan Eardley, Hanifa Shah

© Nov 2003 Volume 1 Issue 2, Editor: Fergal McGrath, pp1 - 226

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Abstract

This paper focuses on the practical significance of visual tools in Knowledge Management (KM) and Information Systems (IS) development in the context of the development of MaKE, a KM method. Visual tools are used extensively in KM and IS. However, this paper identifies a dilemma in the use of visual tools and examines how this dilemma was addressed during the development of some visual tools in MaKE. A brief description of MaKE is provided before visual tools are presented and discussed. The visual tools are called the Knowledge Targets Pyramid, Knowledge Tree, Knowledge Block, and the Linking Overview which are used to help present outcomes. They were reviewed and analysed in workshops in a major UK Fast Moving Consumer Goods manufacturer. The authors suggest that the findings of this research are relevant to visual tools used as part of KM methods and frameworks and that if certain guidelines are borne in mind, visual tools are very helpful for understanding and communicating, in a short time frame, relatively complex phenomena. Within the context of MaKE the Knowledge Targets Pyramid, Knowledge Block, and the Linking Overview do this more effectively than the Knowledge Tree.

 

Keywords: Knowledge Management method, action research, visual tools

 

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Journal Article

The Potential of Neuro‑Linguistic Programming in Human Capital Development  pp131-141

Eric Kong

© Mar 2012 Volume 10 Issue 2, ICICKM 2011, Editor: Vincent Ribière, pp110 - 207

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Abstract

Human capital (HC) represents the cumulative tacit knowledge that is embedded in the minds of people in organisations. HC is important to organisations because it serves as a source of innovation and strategic renewal. Individuals carry HC when they join an organisation and take their talent, skills and tacit knowledge with them when they leave the organisation. Thus HC is volatile in nature. Organisations are therefore keen to do what they can to foster and develop HC as a means of achieving sustainable competitive advantage. This paper argues that neuro‑linguistic programming (NLP) has the potential of developing and enhancing the stock of HC in organisations. NLP emerged in the 1970s from the University of California, USA. NLP suggests that subjective experience is encoded in terms of three main representation systems: visual, auditory, and kinaesthetic (VAK). NLP practitioners claim that people tend to have one preferred representation system over another in a given context. Despite that previous research has shown that NLP can assist in facilitating knowledge and learning capabilities, very limited research is conducted using NLP in nurturing HC in organisations. This paper critically reviews the literature and theoretically argues that NLP can be used as a practical approach to develop HC in organisations. This is because NLP primarily focuses on individual internal learning and that learning likely leads to the accumulation of HC in organisations. In other words, organisational members may find it more effective to enhance their tacit knowledge, both individually and collectively, if they adopt the NLP approach in their day‑to‑day work. Examples on how NLP may be used to develop HC in organisations will be provided. Future research direction and limitations will also be discussed.

 

Keywords: human capital, individual and organisational learning, neuro-linguistic programming, visual, auditory and kinaesthetic systems

 

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Journal Article

New Insights for Relational Capital  pp13-28

Kaisa Still, Jukka Huhtamäki, Martha G. Russell

© Jun 2015 Volume 13 Issue 1, Editor: Meliha Handzic and John Dumay, pp1 - 100

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Abstract

Abstract: In this paper, we concentrate on relational capital, manifestation of the old adage ⠀it is not what you know but who you know⠀. We propose that in this networked world, the importance of relationships between multiple stakeholders created by key personnel and financing becomes fundamental, and hence understanding and measuring those becomes fundamental, too. Accordingly, we highlight that there is a need to go beyond social, individual or personal relationships and organizational context, as well as beyond the limitations of the dyadic (one actor to one actor) view on relationships. Hence, we are introducing the ecosystem as the context for measuring relational capital. This paper builds on a construct of ecosystemic relational capital, cr eated for understanding and measuring the importance of relationships in the context of ecosystems. It looks at the totality of relationships both at organizational level and at individual level, measuring the structures and characteristics related to ind ividuals, organizations as well as the ecosystem as a whole (Still et al. 2014a). We acknowledge that the initial framework emphasizes the ⠜networking capabilities⠀ element of relational capital, with less attention to the element of ⠜customer loy alty and reputation⠀, which is the motivation for building on the construct. The processes of ecosystemic relational capital are already seen to be built on the possibilities afforded by the volumes of digital data, mostly from social media, providing d etails on the relationships between various actors related to various regions, sectors, technologies and products. However, we propose enhancing the holistic integration for better understanding and measuring of relational capital with the application of methods of social network analysis (SNA), network visualizations and social media analytics. In this paper, we present concrete examples of the enhanced framework. At the same time, we acknowledge that there are many other avenues for obtaining novel in sights for relational capital with these analytics

 

Keywords: innovation ecosystems, relational capital, social capital, visual ecosystem analytics, social network analysis, social media analytics, innovation indicators

 

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Journal Article

Model to Support Patent Retrieval in the Context of Innovation‑Processes by Means of Dialogue and Information Visualisation  pp87-98

Paul Landwich, Tobias Vogel, Claus-Peter Klas, Matthias Hemmje

© Apr 2009 Volume 7 Issue 1, ECKM 2008, Editor: Roy Williams, pp1 - 198

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Abstract

Innovations are an essential factor of competition for manufacturing companies in technical industries. Patent information plays an important role within innovation‑processes and for human innovators working on innovations. Innovation‑processes support the combination of cross‑organisational spread information and resources from patent databases and digital libraries is necessary in order to gain profit for innovation experts. The central challenge is to overcome the current information deficit and to fulfil the information need of the experts in the innovation‑process. Classical information retrieval (IR) research has been dominated by the system‑oriented view in the past. A user formulates a query and then evaluates the elements found through the query according to their relevance. But this rather static setting does not always correspond to the communication and interaction needs of humans. IR systems should explicitly support also the cognitive abilities of the users in order to realize a dynamic dialogue between the user and the system. An information dialogue which does not only support an individual query but also the complete search process is necessary. Only in this way is it possible to satisfy an information need and support the innovation‑process. In this paper we present in detail three innovation scenarios to highlight the challenges of advanced information systems, query reusability and result visualisation. By defining the essential activities and conditions of a search task, it is possible to develop user interfaces which offer assistance in the form of a connection of dialogues. From this we derive the elementary information sets and activities in the next step. An example illustrates the applicability and utility of the innovation scenarios described and shows how the activities satisfy the user's information dialogue context. As part of the example we apply a cognitive walkthrough on a patent database. Aiming for an implementation of Daffodil‑System we will benefit from these results.

 

Keywords: information retrieval, innovation-process, interactive systems, patent retrieval, result visualisation, information visualisation

 

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Journal Article

Pictures of Knowledge Management, Developing a Method for Analysing Knowledge Metaphors in Visuals  pp405-414

Daniel Andriessen, Eja Kliphuis, Jane McKenzie, Christine van Winkelen

© Aug 2009 Volume 7 Issue 4, ECIC 2009, Editor: Christiaan Stam, Daan Andriessen, pp397 - 534

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Abstract

Knowledge management (KM) is difficult to pin down. It means different things in different organisations. The deliberate use of metaphors has been used to communicate what KM is about. This metaphorical communication can be even more enriched using visual as well as language mechanisms: "a picture paints a thousand words" suggests we can capture more resonances of a complex subject like KM through visuals than through a description alone. In addition, visuals are perceived to transcend the limitations of language, which can be an obstacle to communication. Yet, no method currently exists that we can use to identify KM metaphors used in visuals. This paper describes our search for a method to analyse metaphors used in visuals about knowledge management. Our objective was threefold: 1) identifying new metaphors for KM in visuals that can enrich KM theorizing, 2) developing a way to identify which visuals are the most powerful in communicating KM theory, and 3) improving the use of visuals as a way of assessing students studying KM. We found that analysing metaphors used in KM visuals is possible using a method that focuses on the dominant metaphors in a visual.

 

Keywords: knowledge management, intellectual capital, visuals, metaphor, analysis

 

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Journal Article

Contextual Adaptive Knowledge Visualization Environments  pp1-14

Xiaoyan Bai, David White, David Sundaram

© Jan 2012 Volume 10 Issue 1, ECKM 2011, Editor: Franz Lehner, pp1 - 109

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Abstract

As an essential component of knowledge management systems, visualizations assist in creating, transferring and sharing knowledge in a wide range of contexts where knowledge workers need to explore, manage and get insights from tremendous volumes of data. Knowledge visualization context may incorporate any information in regard to the decisional problem context within which visualizations are applied, the visualization profiles of knowledge workers as well as their intended purposes. Due to the inherent dynamic nature, these contextual factors may cause the changing visualization requirements and difficulties in maintaining the effectiveness of a knowledge visualization when contextual changes occur. To address the contextual complexities, visualization systems to support knowledge management need to provide flexible support for the creation, manipulation, transformation and improvement of visualization solutions. Furthermore, they should be able to sense, analyze and respond to the contextual changes so as to support in maintaining the effectiveness of the solutions. In addition, they need to possess the capability to mediate between the problem and the knowledge workers through provision of action and presentation languages. However, many visualization systems tend to provide weak support for fulfilling these system requirements. They do not provide adequate flexibility for adapting the visualizations to fit different knowledge visualization contexts. This motivated us to propose and implement a flexible knowledge visualization system for better aiding knowledge creation, transfer and sharing, namely, Contextual Adaptive Visualization Environment (CAVE). CAVE provides flexible support for (1) sensing and being aware of changes in the problem, purpose and/or knowledge worker contexts, (2) interpreting the changes through relevant analysis and (3) responding to the changes through appropriate re‑design and re‑modelling of visual compositions to address the problem. In order to fulfil the requirements posed above, we developed and proposed conceptual models and frameworks which are further elucidated through system‑oriented architectures and implementations.

 

Keywords: knowledge visualization, knowledge visualization context, knowledge creation and sharing, CAVE model, CAVE framework, and CAVE implementation

 

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Journal Article

Knowledge Creation and Visualisation by Using Trade‑off Curves to Enable Set‑based Concurrent Engineering  pp73-86

Zehra Canan Araci, Ahmed Al-Ashaab, Maksim Maksimovic

© Mar 2016 Volume 14 Issue 1, Special Issue on Is KM in Decline?, Editor: Andrea Garlatti and Maurizio Massaro, pp1 - 88

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Abstract

Abstract: The increased international competition forces companies to sustain and improve market share through the production of a high quality product in a cost effective manner and in a shorter time. Set‑based concurrent engineering (SBCE), which is a core element of lean product development approach, has got the potential to decrease time‑to‑market as well as enhance product innovation to be produced in good quality and cost effective manner. A knowledge‑based environment is one of the important requ irements for a successful SBCE implementation. One way to provide this environment is the use of trade‑off curves (ToC). ToC is a tool to create and visualise knowledge in the way to understand the relationships between various conflicting design parame ters to each other. This paper presents an overview of different types of ToCs and the role of knowledge‑based ToCs in SBCE by employing an extensive literature review and industrial field study. It then proposes a process of generating and using knowledg e‑based ToCs in order to create and visualise knowledge to enable the following key SBCE activities: (1) Identify the feasible design space, (2) Generate set of conceptual design solutions, (3) Compare design solutions, (4) Narrow down the design sets, (5) Achieve final optimal design solution. Finally a hypothetical example of a car seat structure is presented in order to provide a better understanding of using ToCs. This example shows that ToCs are effective tools to be used as a knowledge sou rce at the early stages of product development process.

 

Keywords: Keywords: set based concurrent engineering, trade-off curves, knowledge creation, knowledge visualisation, knowledge reuse, new product development, innovation

 

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Journal Article

A Know‑How and Knowing‑That Cartography for Improving knowledge Management in Medical Field  pp170-184

Sahar Ghrab, Ines Saad, Gilles Kassel, Faiez Gargouri

© Sep 2018 Volume 16 Issue 2, The Management of IC and Knowledge “in action”, Editor: Dr Maria Serena Chiucchi and Dr Susanne Durst, pp73 - 186

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Abstract

As a tool of Knowledge Management, knowledge cartography is used, in this paper, to enhance knowledge identification, sharing, representation and visualization in a healthcare organization as well as to deliver healthcare services and improve communication between healthcare professionals.The Know‑How and Knowing‑That concepts are used, in this paper, instead of the knowledge concept. Know‑How is defined as the capacity to perform an action and Knowing‑That is defined as a belief state related to a description which can be factual or prescriptive. For the construction of Know‑How and Knowing‑That cartography, a knowledge cartography methodology is proposed. It is composed of three steps: (i) identifying the concepts to visualize, (ii) identifying the graphical elements and (iii) choosing the cartography technique. This cartography is experimented in the ASHMS (Association of Protection of Motor Disabled of Sfax) to facilitate Know‑How and Knowing‑That identification, characterization and visualization.

 

Keywords: Healthcare knowledge management, knowledge identification, Know-How and Knowing-That cartography, knowledge visualization, Know-How, Knowing-That

 

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